TEACH YOUR CHILD TO READ IN 100 EASY LESSONS

A Research-based Reading Program for Home Use

Direct Instruction Orientation

Strategies and procedures developed by Haddox with Engelmann and others
Copy this content to create your own slides for presentation.

1. Why Group Response?

2. Repetitions Required for Mastery

3. Direct Instruction Philosophy

4. Direct Instruction Technology

5. Support-Management System

6. Instructional Design

7. Teaching (Delivery) Strategies

8. Classroom Management

9. Signals

10. Corrections and Firming

11. Format Practice

Dr. Phyllis Haddox

SLIDE 1: Why Use Group Response?


Students remember less than 50% of what we say

Students remember less than 25% when other students answer

Students remember less than 5% when the instructor goes to another student to answer after an error

University of Boston

SLIDE 2: Number of Repetitions (with corrective feedback)


Repetitions needed for students to internalize a concept or operation at Mastery Level:

8-12 for gifted students

25-35 for average students

1400 or more for “naive” students

(Siegfried Engelmann, Tactual Vocoder Project)

SLIDE 3: DIRECT INSTRUCTION PHILOSOPHY


All Children Can Learn

All Teachers Can Be Successful

…with
well designed instructional material
delivered by a trained instructor
who is appropriately supported

SLIDE 4: DIRECT INSTRUCTION Technology


Support – Management System

+

Instructional Design

+

Instructional Delivery

=

Successful Academic Performance, and Confident Attitude

SLIDE 5: DIRECT INSTRUCTION Support-Management System


LOGISTICS AND SUPPLIES

Instructional material is delivered in timely manner

Daily academic time is scheduled

  • in large blocks of time with limited interruptions;
  • to permit cross-class, cross-grade grouping;
  • to facilitate consistent instruction on at least 160 days out of 180.

Port-of-entry classroom

TRAINING/MONITORING/TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PERSONNEL

Pre-service, in-service training

In-class coaching-technical assistance

Mentoring cadre

Video

Data analysis

OPTIONAL:

Community-parent relations worker

Testers

SLIDE 6: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN


SPECIFY CLEAR OUTCOMES (OBJECTIVES)

ANALYZE SKILLS/CONCEPTS

Only functional skills
Subskills and strategies

CONSTRUCT TASKS FOR 1ST TIME CORRECT

Overt responses -measure/observe
Select and logically sequence examples
Simple ->complex
Directed ->independent
No confusing discriminations
Cumulative review
Integration of skills
Opportunities to practice to mastery
Build in assessment/management

SCRIPTED LESSONS

Not wordy lectures
Controlled vocabulary
Standardized wording Brief-Concise
Many examples
Unambiguous
Variety of activities
Consistent
(More in less time)
Corrections built in

SCRIPTED LESSONS

Many practice opportunities-interact as in tutorial
Support in response and correction

FIELD TEST with wide range of students

REVISE FROM DATA

SLIDE 7: DIRECT INSTRUCTION DELIVERY: TEACHING/MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Maximize Student Engagement and Mastery-Group Response


Structure for teaching ALL students (low performers to mastery)

  • homogenous grouping-from placement data
  • setup area and material
  • seating in small group so all students can see material
  • ease of monitoring-fingers and mouths during group and individual turns
  • state academic and behavioral expectations

Present scripted exercises in a motivating manner-require 100% participation-group response

  • Include all steps-model, lead, test as indicated in script
  • Emphasize key words
  • Pause for thinking
  • Pace rapidly
    • immediate feedback
    • less time needed-massed practice
    • more repetitions
    • covers more material
    • reduces memory load
    • reduces management problems
  • Clear Signals
    • teacher controls pacing, think time
    • individual initiates own response

Teach to 100% criterion

  • Monitor carefully all responses
  • Provide continuous feedback
    • Correct all errors {see also Corrections}
    • Reinforce specific academic performance for continuing student participation {see also Classroom Management}
  • Check individual mastery-after group is firm

Check individual mastery—after group is firm

[Training required-techniques may initially feel counterintuitive]

SLIDE 8: CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT


State CLEAR EXPECTATIONS

  • Behavioral
  • Academic Performance

MONITOR Group Carefully

Give IMMEDIATE, SPECIFIC FEEDBACK

  • Praise behavior-relate to expectations
  • Provide consequence/correction

START OVER after corrections

Maintain BRISK PACING

  • Task to task
  • Transitions between tasks
  • Change type of tasks

SLIDE 9: Parts of a Signal


1. FOCUS – directs students to the task

EXAMPLES: “Next word.” (in story) / You point to ball on arrow in front of word. / You hold up hand and say, “Listen.”

2. THINK TIME (0-5 seconds) reasonable time for figuring out the response

3. VERBAL CUE – alerts students how and when to respond

EXAMPLES: “What word?” / “Sound it out. Get ready.”

4. INTERVAL – always the same, a split second for a breath

5. HAND SIGNAL – students response now

EXAMPLES:
Hand drop; when looking at instructor
Visual-pull-out-touch, loop, slash; for instructor’s material
Auditory-snap, clap, tap-when students look at their material

SLIDE 10: CORRECTIONS/PART-FIRMING


Immediate
Positive Academic EXPECTATION

MODEL correct response (Exaggerated): “Listen.” and/or “My turn.”

LEAD [on production responses only]:

“Say (Do) it with me.”
“Again.” [Until students respond with you]

“One more time.”

TEST-repeat step: “Your turn.” or “All by yourselves.”

TEST-repeat part: “Again.”

TEST-repeat exercise until 100% correct: “Starting over

TEST-individual turns

SLIDE 11: DIRECT INSTRUCTION FORMAT PREPARATION AND PRACTICE


1. Read over and study the format.

How is the format structured? Model, lead, test included?
Are they repeated procedures?
Are there any “Repeat until firm” steps?
Look for “Individual Turns,” or “Individual Tests.”

2. Practice the wording aloud (emphasis, pauses).

3. Determine Appropriate Signals.

Point touch signal-Teacher-controlled visual.
Hand drop signal-No visual focus, verbal task.
Auditory (clap, snap, or tap)-Student-controlled visual.

4. Coordinate words and signals.

5. Practice until pacing is rapid.

6. Practice corrections and reinforcement.

• Use the Teacher’s Guide as an on-going training vehicle.

END of Slide Presentation